Some laboratory workers perform thousands of tests daily with problems being caused by continual depression of the plunger on pipettors, which in turn cause errors in pipetting. In addition, there are many factors related to the pipettor, tips, and the laboratory worker which affect the accuracy and precision in pipetting.
Use of modern day Biological Safety cabinets (BSC's) began in the early 1970's with BSC's that were manufactured to the NIH-03-112C Standard and subsequently the NSF Standard 49. BSC's manufactured in the 70's, 80's and early 90's have provided over 15 years of service.
Catalysts are used in a variety of applications from the production of consumer goods to the protection of the environment.Chemical adsorption ("chemisorption") analysis techniques provide much of the information necessary to evaluate catalyst materials in the design and production phases, as well as after a period of use.