By Evoqua Water Technologies
Endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides shed from the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. They are released when the bacterial cell dies. Endotoxins interact with cells causing a wide range of detrimental effects. Other applications such as in-vitro fertilization and cell culture are very vulnerable. Reliable experimentation involving cell division, electrophoresis and other biochemical processes all benefit from the removal of endotoxins.
For many years lyophilisation, or freeze drying, has been used to dry samples in the laboratory. The technique is well researched and has become the method of choice for many researchers with a few samples to dry. Lyophilisation is often preferred because a high level of dryness is achieved with low residual solvent levels, and because of the light, powdery, 'fluffy' finish of the sample which enables the sample to be easily removed and weighted out.
The core business of pharmaceutical companies is geared toward research, manufacturing, sales, and marketing. However, when equipment used for the purpose of research and manufacturing and even assets such as employee computers have reached their useful life, they often times wind up sitting idle and taking up space or are disposed of in an inefficient way.