By Rui Chen, Jinchuan Yang, and John McCauley, Waters Corporation
Fat-soluble vitamins(FSVs) include vitamins A, D, E, K and carotenoids such as β-carotene. The FSVs are involved in complex metabolic reactions related to important biological functions such as vision (vitamin A), calcium absorption (vitamin D), antioxidant protection of cell membrane (vitamin E), and blood coagulation (vitamin K). Beta-carotene is a precursor to vitamin A and has 100% vitamin A activity in the human body. Lycopene is not an essential nutrient for humans; however, its potential antioxidation benefit resulted in increased marketing in some dietary supplements along with other ingredients.